Adult suckling dating
Most studies that have isolated and identified herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) that are behaviourally active in repelling or attracting herbivores have been based solely on laboratory bioassays.We have not found any reports describing the identification of HIPVs that alter the behaviour of adult herbivores under field conditions.Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores.The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores.
In North America, male and female adults of the tortricid, oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, were most attracted to a blend of 2-phenylethanol and acetic acid.
Here, we have focused on the adult herbivore responses to identified HIPVs in the field.
Our initial objective was to investigate whether apple volatiles induced by LBAM larvae in New Zealand aid conspecific adults in locating suitable hosts.
Acetic acid and acetic anhydride were only detected in SPME samples because there is no co-eluting solvent to overwhelm the GC/MS detector.
Otherwise, similar odour profiles were found with regard to quality and ratio of compounds when using SPME or dynamic headspace collection of volatiles.
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Leafrollers are primarily foliar and quarantine pests of apples (M.