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At the outset of the 17 century, the Latvian land was the scene of the Polish-Swedish war which had a decisive influence on its future.
In the twenty-year-long warfare, which enfeebled the country and was famous for the glorious and victorious Battle of Kircholm, strikes the indecisiveness of Latvian peasantry which remained impartial when two opposing, foreign armies and rulers were struggling in their land.
To speak of a uniform attitude of the Latvian nation of the time would certainly be a misunderstanding.
In 1621 Swedes seized Riga and in 1629 a new alliance was concluded in Stary Targ (Altmarkt) which ruled that Riga and greater part of Livonia (today – Vidzeme) remained Swedish and today’s Latgalia Polish.
After the revolution, the same Tsarism was forced to temper the political system and establish the National Duma (local parliament).The number of their Poles grew steadily due to the influx of students to Riga Technical University (its graduate was later President Mościcki and other distinguished Poles) and junior high schools (Józef Piłsudski’s brother studied in Liepaja) also in Jelgava. In the years 1878–1879, few Polish social organizations were established, including two academic associations of the Technical University – Arconia and Welecja; they have been existing until today but now are seated in Warsaw.Other immigrants were labourers and intelligentsia. The Polish reaction in Latvia to the 1905 Russian Revolution was uneven although, unlike German nobility, Polish landowners displayed greater understanding of Latvian approach.century, one of its details – a silver griffin – was embedded into the national emblem of independent Latvia in the recognition of Polish contribution to the country’s history.Many of the former liegemen of the Teutonic Order in Latgalia became entirely Polonized.
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Afterwards came the Livonian war with Stephen Bathory as the victor and the incorporation of independent Riga followed by the re-Catholicization of the Lutheran Riga and Livonia forced by the Polish king and his famous envoy Piotr Skarga, SJ.