Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age.
Following the premature death of Alexander, Iran came under the control of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Under king Cyaxares, the Medes and Persians entered into an alliance with Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar, as well as the fellow Iranian Scythians and Cimmerians, and together they attacked the Assyrian Empire.
The civil war ravaged the Assyrian Empire between 616 and 605 BC, thus freeing their respective peoples from three centuries of Assyrian rule.
The conquest of Media was a result of what is called the Persian Revolt.
The brouhaha was initially triggered by the actions of the Median ruler Astyages, and was quickly spread to other provinces, as they allied with the Persians.