Reading and dating roman imperial coins
He is a Ford Scholar and a member of Phi Beta Kappa.No-hassle return policy if not completely satisfied.Few reverses contain inscriptions, so look for certain attributes to correctly identify the figures.For example, Jupiter (Zeus in the Greek tradition) holds a lightning bolt; Justice holds scales. However, you can determine the year that a particular coin was struck using two methods.
Coins struck at Alexandreia under the empire were dated by the regnal years of the Emperor.
It may have been derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph. Greek dates are also sometimes written out or abbreviated. The start date of eras above and others are listed below: If the era started before the common era (BC or BCE), to determine the common era (AD or CE) date, subtract the era start year from the date on the coin.
Some examples follow (these are ordinal numbers): L, ETOVC, or ΕΤΟΥΣ = of the year∆ΕΥΤΕΡΟΥ = 2ndΤΡΙΤΟΥ = 3rdΤΕΤΑΡΤΟΥ = 4thΠΕΜΠΤΟΥ = 5thΕΚΤΟΥ = 6thΕΒ∆ΟΜΟΥ = 7thΟΓ∆ΟΟΥ = 8thΕΝΑΤΟΥ, ΕΤ ΕΝΑΤ, ΕΝΑ, ΕΝ, ΕΤ Θ = 9th∆ΕΚΑΤΟΥ, ∆Ε ∆ΕΚΑΤ, ∆ΕΚΑ = 10thΕΝ∆ΕΚΑΤΟΥ = 11th∆Ω∆ΕΚΑΤΟΥ, ∆Ω∆ΕΚΑΤ, ∆Ω∆ΕΚ = 12thΤΡΙCΚΑΙ∆ΕΚΑ, ΤΡΙCΚΑΙ = 13thΕΝΝΕΑΚ∆ = 19th The dates above may not be "proper" Greek. THE ACTIAN ERA dates from the victory of Caesar over Antony at Actium in B. If the result is less than zero, determine the date before the common era (BC or BCE) by subtracting the date on the coin from the era start year and then adding one.
Aug: "Augustus" or "Sacred" (an imperial title) Caes: "Caesar" (originally a family name; became an imperial title) Cens Per: "Censor Perpetuus" or "Perpetual Censor" Cos: "Consul" F: "Filius/Filia" or "Son/Daughter" Ger: "Germanicus" (honorary and hereditary name) Imp: "Imperator" or "Emperor" PM: "Pontifex Maximus" or "Head Priest" PP: "Pater Patriae" or "Father of the Country" TP: "Tribunicia Potestas" or "Tribunal Power" The reverse of Roman coins contains images of gods and personifications.
Personifications are human figures that represent qualities such as justice, fortune, honour or happiness.
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Because these portraits are nearly identical, the best way to identify your coin is by reading its inscription.