Of the several societal milieus observed by social scientists in Russia, some are seriously under-represented in the media system; and deep differences in media consumption, agenda setting, and public deliberation exist between all of them.
Recently, a major value-based societal cleavage was revealed during the 2011-2012 protest rallies within the "For fair elections / white-ribbon" movement.
Audience overlap score is calculated from an analysis of common visitors and/or search keywords.Facebook is flagged up as an echo chamber facilitating the protests.Keywords: Hybrid media system, public sphere, media use, Russia, Facebook, echo chambers, protest With the growth of Internet penetration around the globe over the 2000s and 2010s, traditional interpretations of mediated / media-based public sphere and its potential to engender democratisation, including deliberation practices, have undergone several significant changes.№ 1 patterns in the post-industrial urban "public counter-sphere" (consisting of the intelligentsia, the "creative class", students and other white-collar workers) and their perceived political freedom and self-reported online political behaviour.The research is expanded throughsearches for echo chambers and/or opinion crossroads in Russian Facebook vs.
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